School Governance, Teacher Incentives, and Pupil-Teacher Ratios:Experimental Evidence from Kenyan Primary Schools

Esther Duflo, Pascaline Dupas and Michael Kremer 2012

This paper examines a program under which Kenyan Parent-Teacher Associations (PTAs) at randomly selected schools were funded to hire an additional teacher on a renewable contract at one-quarter normal compensation levels. It recognises the argument that resources and lowering pupil-teacher ratios will have limited impact without systematic reforms to education governance, teacher incentives, and pedagogy.

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